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2006.11.17

チョコレートレボリューション

カカオ貿易の問題点について

Chococacao01

学校からの帰り道に板チョコレートをペロっと一枚食べるのが楽しみだった大学生のとき、新聞のニュースで、こんな話を読んだ。

 西アフリカ、ギニア湾で子供ばかり(10歳から14歳)227人を乗せた舟が行方不明になった。船は奴隷船ではないかという疑惑が持ち上がった。沿岸の国々はこの船が自分の国の港に着くのを禁止したため、船は近海をさまよい、1週間後、出発地ベニンの港町、コトヌーに戻ってきた。そのとき、当初227人だったはずの子供が23人に減っていた。残りの200人は海に捨てられたとも、沿岸で下ろされたとも言われている。その後の調査で、船に乗っていた子供たちはコートジボワールのカカオ豆農園に売られて送られる途中だったということが判明した。(2001年4月13日)世界のカカオ豆の7割はアフリカで、4割は、コートジボワールで作られている。

Choconamake06

この話が、どこか頭の片隅に残ってはいても、やっぱりチョコレートは好きなので、たまに一枚100円の板チョコレートを食べた。でもペロっと一気に食べるようなことはなくなった。

社会人になって、仕事でエクアドルで大事に作られたチョコレートを、フェアトレードするようになった。カカオの風味が全然違うので、ゆっくりじっくり食べるようになった。あるときふと、その新聞記事のことを思い出し、どうして2001年に「奴隷船」なんて時代錯誤なものがあったんだろうと考えた。それを、噛み砕いて説明すると、こういうこと。

Choconamake04

1 カカオ

商品を輸入するとき、私たちは、関税率を計算して税関でお金を払う。

カカオの関税率は0%、チョコレートの関税率は10%、砂糖入りのココアは29%。

カカオやチョコレートの貿易は、カカオを輸入してチョコレート作る多国籍企業や、
先進国に有利な仕組みになっている。カカオ豆やコーヒー豆は関税率0%で、
"自由に"取引ができるようになっている。これは、表向きには
「途上国が先進国にこれらの産品を売って、外貨を獲得して債務を返済しやすくするため」
の措置とされている。各国ではこれにもとづいた政策がとられ、
途上国は「債務を返済するため」に、農作物を輸入してでも、外貨を獲得することを求められている。

いくつもの国で同じようなことをすれば、カカオの生産量が増え、厳しい市場での競争にさらされて、
国際価格はどんどん下がる。この25年の間に、カカオの価格は十分の一にも下がったと言われている。
それでも「ガイカ」を得る方法が他にないので、生産を続けなくてはならない。

生産量や、天候等による影響の他、 投機目的でもカカオの価格は変動する。カカオの国際相場は、
ロンドンやニューヨークの1次産品市場で主に決定される。一般的には、カカオの供給が需要を上回る際には
価格は下落、そして立場の弱い生産者にしわ寄せが、反対に、カカオの供給が需要を下回るときには価格は上がり、その際は、投機家がその利益のほとんどを持っていってしまう。生産者はあまり利益を得られない構造になっており、コーヒーと並び「不公正な貿易」といわれる。

作り手は、カカオの生産量を需要に合わせて調整することができない。なぜならば、カカオの木が初めて実をつけるまでに6〜8年の歳月が必要であり、さらに発酵/乾燥など、お金に変わるまでにも時間がかかるから。生産者にとっては、こうした需要と供給のゲームにすばやく対応することは不可能なのだ。

カカオの価格が下がって、喜ぶのは、先進国のチョコレート会社だけというわけ。では、エクアドルがチョコレートを作って売らないのはなぜ?アメリカよりもずっと安く、しかも「本物」のチョコレートが作れるはずなのに。それは、チョコレートには10%の関税、ココアには28%の関税がかかっていることに秘密がある。アメリカが、ヨーロッパが、そして先進国が、エクアドル産のカカオは輸入するけれど、チョコレートには高い関税をかけて、売れないようにしているのだ。これは、途上国が世界に売りたいと思っている多くの産品に当てはまる。

カカオ産品に対する世界の需要は依然高く、年間カカオ貿易の83%を、3つの企業が占めている。一方、世界の供給量の70%はカメルーン、コートジボワール、ガーナ、ナイジェリアの小規模農家によって生産されている。
世界熱帯農業研究所(IITA)の2002年の報告によると、ココア農業で得られる収入は、家族一人当たり30〜110ドル。生産に必要なコストさえ出すのが難しい状況だ。村にはポンプをつけるお金もなく、住民は、近くの川への水汲みに疲れ果てている。質の悪い水で病気になる。といったことも報告されている。必要なものを買うことすら満足にできない。

こんな状況でカカオを作り続けなければならない中、大小の農園では、なんとか利益を上げるために安い労働力を得ようと、子どもの奴隷を使う。奴隷仲買人は、1人あたり15〜30ドルで村の子どもたちを買い集め、カカオ豆の農場に送る。子どもたちは、ただ同然の低賃金か賃金なしで重労働をさせられ、擦り切れたTシャツ1枚で農薬を扱うこともあるそう。

2002年8月に発表されたIITA(国際熱帯農業研究所)による詳細調査によれば、調査を実施した1,500の農園において、合計284,000人もの児童が危険な労働に従事しており、そのうち約12,500人については身寄りのない児童、つまりよそから購入された「奴隷」であった。(子供の奴隷:推定1万5千人から5万人)
カカオ豆の生産のため、25万人を越える西アフリカの子どもたちが働いているといわれている。

Choconamake01

2 新品種の登場による環境破壊

SWcのチョコレートのカカオ産地では、森の中の樹々にカカオがなっている。カカオは、南米原産の植物で、もともとは日陰で育つもの。伝統的には、他の木などの植物の間に植えられて、育てられてきた。日本の雑木林のように、単一の植物のみが植えられている場合と違い、多様な植物が育っている環境では、生態系が豊かになる。
カカオの木は、蟻やキツツキなど、さまざまな生物に棲みかを与える。

しかし、カカオだけが植えられているプランテーションでは状況が異なる。緑の革命がもてはやされた70年代、「日なたでも栽培可能な品種」を作り出した。これにより、熱帯雨林を大規模に破壊したプランテーション開発が進められるようになった。
 
その結果、コートジボアールでは、2000年までに国内の14パーセントの熱帯雨林が破壊されたといわれる。新しい品種は収量は多いのだが、大量の化学肥料や農薬を必要とする。カカオに吸収されなかった化学肥料は、やがて地下水に溶け込んで水を汚染し、強い農薬の使用は、当然、作業をする人たちの健康を害する。農薬の使いすぎは、害虫や病原菌に耐性を持たせて、病気や害虫の大発生を招く。これは農民が耕作放棄する原因となる。農民は他の場所でまた新たに森を切り開きカカオを植え、同じような農業を行う。そしてまた病害虫の大発生でそこを捨て...ということを繰り返すことになってゆく。

3 カカオに使われる農薬

先進国で禁止されている最も危険な農薬12種類のうちの9種類を含めた30数種類の農薬が、そこで働く何の知識も知らされることもない労働者の体を蝕んでいる。毎年2500万人の農業労働者が、農薬中毒に陥っていると推定されている。もちろん、地下水も大地も汚染される。

今年、エクアドル産のカカオを日本の商社が輸入しようとした際に、2-4-Dという非常に強い除草剤が残留農薬として検出され、話題になった。2-4-Dといえば、これと「除草剤をかけても枯れない作物」の遺伝子組み換えの種が、セットで売られていることで知られている。風が吹いても倒れない作物とか、虫が食べると死ぬ草とか、人間の都合で、どんどん変な景色が作られている。

Choconamake05

4 愛のあるチョコレートを食べるには

もう誰も、カカオ農園で嫌な思いをしなくて済むには、そして、LOVEのいっぱい詰まったチョコレートを食べるにはどうすればよいか、考えてみた。

 0)債務の問題を帳消しにして、みんなが地産地消に戻ること。
    ジュビリー2000

 1)チョコレートを食べ続けるなら、メーカーはよい環境でカカオが生産されることに寄与し、それをなるべく高いフェアな値段で買うこと。
   森林栽培 
   世界カカオ協定 

 2)カカオの産地自身が、チョコレートを製品にして輸出できるようにすること。それをフェアトレードで輸入し、大事に美味しく食べられるように提案すること。
   http://www.slowwatercafe.com
 
 3)今あるカカオの貿易に対して、確かめ、よいつながりを作る製品を選ぶこと。

 4)チョコレートやカカオがどんな所でどんな風に作られるのかをもっと伝えること。
   それを知るのは楽しいことだということに、気づいてもらうこと。

Choconamake03
ーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーーー
Cocoa Farming: Fast Facts

• Number of cocoa farmers, worldwide: 5-6 million  カカオ農園で働く人 500〜600万人 (東京の人口の半分)
• Number of people who depend upon cocoa for their livelihood, worldwide: 40-50 million カカオ産業に生計をゆだねている人 4000〜5000万人 
• Annual cocoa production, worldwide: 3 million tons 年間の製造量 300万トン
• Annual increase in demand for cocoa: 3 percent per year, for the past 100 years 過去100年間に渡って、年間3%ずつ生産が増えている
• Current global market value of annual cocoa crop: $5.1 billion 年間のカカオ取引総額 51億ドル
• Cocoa growing regions: Africa, Asia, Central America, South America (all within 20 degrees of the equator) アフリカ、アジア、中央アメリカ、南アメリカ 赤道から20度以内の地域
• Percentage of cocoa that comes from West Africa: 70 percent 西アフリカからのカカオの割合 70%
• Length of time required for a cocoa tree to produce its first beans (pods): five yearsカカオが最初の実をつけるまで 5年
• Duration of “peak growing period” for the average cocoa tree: 10 years 実をよくつける時期 10年間

Choconamake02

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